Abstract: With the advancement of technology, the flow of information has increased many folds. With this, the spread of fake news has also increased. This has many objectives on part of its originating source. The panic criterion is one of it, which aims to create unrest and a distorted image of a situation prevailing around the readers. To consider the problem, this study analyzed the WhatsApp user’s response to fake news concerning (Covid-19) in Pakistan. This study considered a quantitative survey research method. A Purposive sampling technique has been used to select respondents from the four provinces of Pakistan i.e. Punjab, Baluchistan, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhua. A total of 200 respondents were considered for the study, and only those respondents were included in the study who responded that they check the authenticity of news that is shared through the WhatsApp groups and statuses. The data has been analyzed through SPSS by extracting frequencies and percentages. The questionnaire was tested for reliability by applying a Chonbach’s Alpha, the value came out to be .621 which is 62 %. Hence, the questionnaire is reliable in terms of measuring the main concept of the study.
Abstract: The main attention of the article is focused on the development of an effective methodology for teaching future radio journalists the theory and practice of publicistic broadcasting. The need to introduce new knowledge of the theoretical and practical foundations of radio publicism into the educational process is due to the high demand of the media market for high-quality radio materials of publicistic orientation, as evidenced by the popularity of journalistic programs.
Within the framework of the study, a number of problems are, that hinder the introduction and implementation of individual courses in radio publicism in educational practice are considered. In particular, these ones are the lack of an up-to-date and accurate scientific definition of the concept of "radio publicism"; obsolescence of the existing format-genre structure of publicistic broadcasting; a low level of exchange of practical experience between student radio editions producing publicistic programs; lack of clearly defined competencies that a student must have for the production of publicistic programs.
The article develops a systematic scientific definition of the concept of “radio publicism”, identifies the main criteria that allow defining programs as publicistic. The actual genre-format structure of publicistic radio broadcasting is represented. The main forms and genres of radio publicism dominant in the XXI century are studied. The practice of production of publicistic radio programs created by student editions of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU) and St. Petersburg State University (SPbGU) are considered. The basic competencies required by students for the production of publicistic radio content are determined.
Abstract: The problem of the research was finding the answer to the question about the scale of using teacher blogs by students of universities in Russia and Poland and learning their opinions on the educational opportunities that teacher blogs have. Efforts were also made to discover the expectations of respondents related to the inclusion of teacher blogs in the academic education process. The aim of the research was to formulate directives to better integrate blogs into the process of educating future teachers. Empirical data was collected on the basis of a survey addressed to students educated in teaching faculties.Research results indicate a low level of use of teacher blogs in the process of educating future teachers. Students had little knowledge about the existence of such blogs, about the content they contain, and therefore used them occasionally. They pointed out the lack of information about the possibility of using blogs by academic teachers who carry out educational activities. At the same time, the analysis of research results indicates that the respondents see great educational opportunities that lie in this form of contact between students and practitioner teachers. They also have high expectations of a more intense inclusion of teacher blogs in the academic process of preparing them for school work. The research indicates the need for greater dissemination of the opportunities offered by blogs in the process of academic education. This applies to both academic teachers who should include them in the process of teaching of their educational subjects and students who should use them more often.
Abstract: The study is a scientific essay on the current position of the medium of photography that is perceived as one of the basic communication means of media education and disciplines of art, combining technology and intention. Each chapter addressing a contextual touch of this medium with the central photographic themes and genres. The empirical research of the medium of photography is founded on the creative and pedagogical experience of authors who systematically deal with analysing the ontological nature of photography, its overlap into genres of conceptual art with a specification in the photographic documentary. The interflow of realities of vision in the creative process and the postmodern approach analogically forms itself into an ideal of visual purity, where the touching of the photographic layer becomes a bearer of causal relationships within the apprehension of contemporary art as well as the analysis of human existence. These aspects are the bases of our thoughts on current position of the medium of photography within media studies and media culture, its variations forming visuality, aesthetic and cultural predisposition, sociological reflections, and critical thinking in the creative process students of mass-media communication, especially emphasizing the necessity of acquiring visual competences, creative strategies and information literacy.
Abstract: The further development of the information society, the inclusion of media in all life spheres of modern youth allows us to consider media education as one of the productive means of fostering interethnic tolerance in the contemporary younger generation which opens up new opportunities for integrating media education technologies with multicultural education, thus forming a true culture of interethnic tolerance. This article presents the analysis of flagship programs and projects for promoting interethnic tolerance among young people through media education. The comparative analysis of the program content of Russian and foreign approaches to fostering interethnic tolerance in student youth by means of media education has enabled us to define the media education methods, forms, technologies and approaches aimed at fostering interethnic tolerance that can become a basis for further successful development in Russian conditions. The main materials for studying the issues of interethnic dialogue, the culture of different peoples and ethnic groups are feature films and documentaries, websites, social networks, television programs, articles in newspapers and magazines. Development of analytical skills and critical thinking skills, comprehension and interpretation of media production of various types and genres, media creative and media project activities of students are of fundamental importance for studying and comprehending interethnic tolerance by student youth.
Abstract: Since decades, a new era of the election campaign has grown in Pakistani politics by shifting the purpose of consideration from the streets to Social media. This undertaking can be called as social media political campaigning. Political communication is a very huge and fascinating part of Social media. For about 2 decades, the domain of World Wide Web has transformed the globe and developed by what means information is kept, circulated, explored and used. Each political party is trying to make its full and extreme struggle to cover the cyberspace better than its rivals do. In this way, this study hence, is an attempt to know that what level of social media Political campaign offers the opportunities and prospects to the voters to know about their leaders, party thoughts, ideology, and party manifestos. These help voters to decide who is the best party or candidate for the nominated position. In this research study, there are three main Political Parties of Pakistan, having most of the public affiliation. These political parties are “Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PML N), Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), and Pakistan Tehreek e Insaaf (PTI) The data was collected by applying a purposive non probability sampling technique. Whereas, the finding are presented in tabular form and then the data findings in table have been described. The key finding showed those respondents were frequently users of social media specifically Facebook and Twitter. They have enough exposure to political content through social media. Finding shows that users consume knowledge regarding party manifestos and have much knowledge of political content through social media political campaign.
Abstract: The media world cannot escape a kind of the "introspection", showing the ways mass media function, how they influence the audience, and, in so doing, what methods and techniques are used. Therefore, for almost a hundred years, cinema has repeatedly addressed the storylines related to the work of the press, television, radio, film studios (and now also Internet agencies), to the stories of journalist investigations, election campaigns, etc. Meanwhile, the work of the employees of media agencies is often portrayed in a rather negative light, revealing many ulcers associated with media manipulations, information wars, direct forgery, etc.
The article analyzes the ways cinema, to a large extent, presents the media (press, television, Internet) as a source of media manipulation and fraud, and the work of journalists as a technology for deceiving and managing the mood of the mass audience just to please the mighty. Materials of our research are academic books and articles on media manipulation and the topic of media manipulation in movies, films about media manipulation, as well as Internet sites. Methodology is based on theoretical framework on the relationship, interdependence and integrity of the phenomena of reality, the unity of the historical and the logical in cognition, the theory of the dialogue of cultures. The research is based on a content analysis and comparative approaches. The following methods are used: data collection (films, monographs, articles, reports) related to the article’s theme, analysis of the films and academic literature, theoretical analysis and synthesis; generalization and classification.
Abstract: The article provides an insight into the role of media technologies in the process of theatre virtualization as a problem of professional media education. The use of multimedia technologies in the theatre is shown on the example of Omsk theatre productions, the teaching of acting skills and theatre studies in Dostoevsky Omsk State University. Substantiating of innovative application of media technologies in educational training of students is made on the basis of international concepts and approaches, implying a number of creative effects and practices in art. For researching separate aspects of the problem there were used pedagogic methods of theoretical and comparative analysis, content analysis of social networks sites. Innovative forms of using media technologies in the contemporary theatre space and relevant media education are established. A number of modern media are revealed allowing to use multimedia art. Special attention is put on performance art, cyber theatre and happening which make possible different levels of interaction with the audience. On the example of Galyorka Theatre character features of using media technologies are substantiated in the immersive performance which creates the effect of full absorption of the audience into the plot. The value of lecturers and students’ flexibility is established which is directed to self-training individual readiness in changing media educational environment. Recommendations are given for strengthening educational training of theatre experts, for training specialists in audio and audiovisual engineering in theatre, for preparing subjects some of which are the part of training of audio and multimedia engineers, other subjects may be inserted into curricula of actors and theatre experts as additional option courses.
Abstract: The empirical basis for this article is comprised of five monographs by A.V. Fedorov and his colleagues published in 2013-2015. All of them are devoted in one way or another to the history and contemporary features of media literacy education development in Russia, near and far abroad countries. The author draws attention to some, in his opinion, the most relevant and important subjects touched upon in the works under consideration. Among other things, we are talking about models and trends in media education, about the prospects for the recent synthesis of media criticism and media education, and about the possibilities and obstacles of integrating the media education component into school and university curricula. The thesis that in modern conditions the necessity of developing a sociopolitical direction of media education becomes more and more evident is substantiated. The author concludes that, given the relatively slow introduction of media education components in the process of schoolchildren and students’ education, wide public outreach efforts to spread the principles of media literacy among the population become almost the main way to improve the overall media culture of people.
Abstract: AR technology creates the possibility of overlapping two realities. It is a space used, among others, in education. AR increases the visual attractiveness of the game and the involvement of its users. However, some applications were not created with the intention of using them for this purpose, although they have the potential not only to entertain but also to teach. One of such games is "Pokemon Go!". which The following research methods were used in the study: 1) in-depth interview to learn about the specifics of the game "Pokemon Go!" and its potential educational opportunities; 2) observation allowing to write down the behavior of players while using the game; 3) a survey to find out the motivations and thoughts of the players. It was attempted to determine whether there will be any interaction between the players and the physical locations used in the game, using the format of the game chosen for the study, which was the passage along the proposed route. It turned out that thanks to the players' suggestions, a potentially optimal way of using the game was determined, which could be used in further research on the phenomenon of the educational dimension of the "Pokemon Go!" game.
Abstract: The article is devoted to manipulation in advertising as an important component of the media space, its difference from honest persuasion. Manipulation is considered to be a sharply negative phenomenon that violates ethical norms of communication. With honest persuasion, language means work to achieve the most important quality of speech – clarity, while manipulation under any circumstances does not seek to achieve clarity. In contrast to the manipulation persuasion is implemented and verified with consciousness. In two types of discourse – advertising and political ones – manipulation is most often used. If manipulative techniques in commercial advertising are generally well identified, but it is rather difficult to identify manipulation in social advertising. Legislative measures are not always confirmed in advertising practices.
The advertising process should be managed and controlled by specialized state regulatory bodies, the area of responsibility includes the improvement of the national legislation in the relevant field, but the complexity of the advertising process determines the need for control, taking into consideration the special Code of the advertiser ethics. Such a code is naturally based not only on a set of rules of social behaviour, but also on a special professionally determined axiological system. The quality of advertising should be inseparable from the level of the civil society development. It is necessary to develop linguistic and legal expertise of advertising and media criticism, which will answer the following questions: whether advertising texts comply with the Laws "On advertising" and "On protection of consumer rights". It is very important to check advertising for compliance with ethical parameters.
Abstract: Accurate knowledge about newspaper production stands as one of the key elements of media literacy among readers. The newspapers have a greater role in enhancing the skills of young people. The newspaper helps students, particularly, to improve their writing and reading skills. The purpose of this study to assess the perception of students in the public sector universities of Sindh province, Pakistan about print media production. In the context to achieve the purpose of the study, the data is collected through a cross-sectional survey from the students of three leading public sector universities in Sindh province, Pakistan. The findings showed that university students have accurate perceptions and knowledge regarding newspaper and magazine production. knew that in the field of journalism and news media who writes features, editorial page represents to the policy of newspaper, layout staff is responsible for newspaper or magazine layout, and the lead story is placed on the front page of a newspaper. Summarily, it was deduced that the university students were found to have news media literacy of the specific variables assessed and tested in this study, in the context of having correct perceptions related to newspaper and magazine production.
Abstract: This study has been developed on the basis of the current scenario between Cuba and Russia where the relationship has been strengthened. It is an important requirement that would help to form a positive image and contributes to the development of the two countries, based on a long-term relationship, it is also the presentation of reliable content in the official media on the current relationship. The content expressed in the official digital media of both countries helps to create a favorable international image and opinion for both governments in the current geopolitical conditions arena. In the framework of this research, the content approach of the Russian news agency “RIA Novosti” is analyzed to find out the current reflection of Cuban-Russian relationship in this official media. Some evaluation criteria were defined as same as the analysis dimensions on the texts published by the RIA Novosti news on Cuba and it was done systematically from March to June 2020, an intentional sample (N = 273) was taken, corresponding to the news published from January to December 2019 on the RIA Novosti website. The methodology used allowed to carry out the thematic content analysis and the semantic content analysis of the “RIA Novosti” texts, combining qualitative and quantitative techniques, which showed that on the media agenda of “RIA Novosti”, during 2019, it was given higher priority to issues on politics, related to Cuba, than to some issues on economy and society. Thus, it is inferred that, the “RIA Novosti's" language used, presents the political facts, economic and social news on Cuba, some the linguistic resources are used to influence positively the audience.
Abstract: Researchers of St. Petersburg State University held an international expert roundtable to discuss the nature and expression of media destructions of the moral values of society in December 2020 within the research project "Aggressions and Phobias in the Media Behavior of Network Communities". Politics experts, psychologists, journalism researchers from Russia, China, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Poland took part. The list was including V.A. Gutorov, O.S. Deineka, I.A. Bykov, N.S. Tsvetova, G.S. Melnik (St. Petersburg State University, Russia), I.F. Kefeli, G.V. Alekseev, V.P. Kirilenko (St. Petersburg State University, Russia), А. Fedorov (Rostov University of Economics, Russia), I.V. Erofeeva (Transbaikal State University, Russia), R.G. Ivanian (St. Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design, Russia), Liu Yan (Xi'an Jiaotong University, China), F.A. Muminov (Bukhara State University, Uzbekistan), S.H. Barlybaeva (Al Farabi National University, Kazakhstan), I. Massaka (Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland), W. Nowiak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland), etc. participated in the roundtable.
This review includes some outcomes of related researches done by the panelists, as well as their conclusions concerning, first of all, destructions created by media towards value base of society. During the discussion, the need to touch upon important aspects of media education arose. It is understood as a comprehensive prerequisite of social life in its counteraction to the practices of destruction of the foundations of the moral sphere of society. The expert roundtable meeting was moderated by the project coordinator V.A. Sidorov (St. Petersburg State University, Russia).
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to determine the structure of technology for the use of video content for linguistic and cultural adaptation of foreign students at higher education institutions of the USA from psycholinguistic point of view. The article is concerned with the analysis of practical measures aimed at forming and developing communication and socio-cultural competence when using video content, including professionally-oriented video content. In the course of the research, the level of influence of video content on the development of foreign students' linguistic and social skills, which are necessary for a comprehensive communication with cultural elements, was determined using the descriptive method. Comparative historical and typological methods allowed to determine whether foreign students could identify any historical and linguistic changes in the language they learned, as well as make a comparative analysis of native and foreign languages. The impact of video content used during adaptation activities was analyzed using sociolinguistic methods, namely the field research method aimed at the identification of a direct correlation between film screenings and the development of the ability to use linguistic and cultural patterns in foreign students, as well as the method of sociolinguistic research which helped to conduct a more detailed study of the socio-communicative elements formed and the impact that the cultural specifics of the society had on them. The applied linguistic method helped to conduct a more detailed study of the impact of video text on the communication skills of a person. Linguistic and cultural patterns are an important component of successful communication for a foreign student since it provides them with elements that can be put to use when needed in social relations. One of the most widely used methods for forming such patterns at HEI of the USA is the use of video content which involves screenings of American films (for direct acculturation, when a foreign student adapts to the linguistic and cultural specifics of the host country) and films produced in the countries from which students came (for reverse acculturation, when local students adapt to the socio-cultural specifics of foreign students). The use of video content in acculturation activities helps a foreign student develop not only linguistic and cultural patterns that are necessary for academic and social activities in the host country, but also critical thinking, which facilitates analysis of new socio-cultural and linguistic information, thereby preventing the negative effects of culture shock. Moreover, video content can be presented with a twofold purpose, as it may be socioculturally oriented (presenting cultural specifics or social problems of the host country) and professionally oriented (containing specialized vocabulary); it can also provide the opportunity for direct and reverse acculturation.
Abstract: The article considers the peculiarities of interaction of depictive and verbal modes in media texts on acute problems. The choice of the topic is conditioned by the situation that has developed in the media discourse of modern journalism. Visual methods of information transfer are beginning to gain more and more importance. The pictorial components of the message start to enter into a complex relationship with the verbal text, which in journalism contains many rhetorical methods. Due to this, the visual component acquires rhetorical connotations and increasingly shows an independent rhetorical potential. Of greatest interest for the study of multimodal rhetoric is the situation when the literal representation of an object turns out to be difficult and forces one to seek creative solutions, forming the individual potential of discourse. This happens in publications on acute social issues. As theoretical and methodological foundations, the most relevant are the conceptual developments of the classics of semiotics, who in their researches studied structural characteristics of visual codes and the interaction of these codes with the verbal text. Also of great interest are the theories of modern scientists working in the mainstream of discourse analysis and semiotics. The authors of the article follow this trend of a multimodal approach and, while analyzing representative examples, identify rhetorical techniques through which the sender of a multimodal message seeks to attract the attention of the audience and make the statement more convincing.
Abstract: The article substantiates the need for a humanitarian vector of studying the use of media and digital resources in education, addressing the phenomenon of the teacher’s potential to use such resources. The identified risks of inadequate realization of such potential are: risks related to misunderstanding by teachers of goals, values and meanings of the use of media and digital resources; the risks of reducing the creative component in the work of the teacher; the risks of overload and professional burnout of a teacher; risks to over–valuate the capacity of media and digital resources; risks of reducing the educational component and losing the orientation of the educational process. The conditions to reduce risks are revealed: formal and informal training of teachers, aimed at revealing the capacity of media and digital resources in achieving the goals of education and training that are significant for teachers; providing teachers with freedom to use such resources, the possibility of choosing both the content and methods of their application; time management for teachers, providing them with assistance from the administration in mastering new functions, stimulating a high level of self-organization; training teachers in the methods of integrating traditional and digital technologies in solving pedagogical problems, pedagogizing of the digital tools; identifying and implementing of educational opportunities and mastering the use of media and digital resources by the teacher; attracting students to create digital educational content, problematization of training; expanding the teacher’s understanding of the capacity of media and digital resources not only in solving pedagogical problems, but also in personal and professional self–improvement, overcoming professional difficulties.